Wisconsin has guidelines for well construction state that all wells must be constructed by licensed well drillers according to State regulations. The well must pass inspection and the water must be certified as potable (drinkable) by the County Health Department before the well can be used.

CASING:  This is metal or plastic pipe used to line a portion of the bore hole. The minimum length (depth) of the casing is determined by State regulations based on the geology of the area. The casing must extend a minimum of 12 inches above the ground (24 inches in flood zones) to keep storm water runoff out of the well.

GROUT:  This forms a watertight seal between the bore hole and the casing to prevent surface water and contaminants from running down the side of the well. The grout is made from portland or quick-setting cement, or bentonite clay. State regulations determine the minimum grout depth.

WELL COVER:  A cap that screws or clamps onto the top of the well casing that prevents contaminants from entering the well.

SCREEN:  The screen is sealed on the bottom and has openings along its length that allow water to enter the well, but keeps out sand and gravel.

PUMP:  The two most common pumps are submersible and jet pumps. Submersible pumps are installed in the well.  They push water up to the house and into the pressure tank.  Jet pumps have the motor located outside the well, and pulls the water up using an vacuum.  Looking at the digram below you'll see it draws water from the bottom of the well and into the distribution system.

PITLESS ADAPTER:  Located below the frost line, the pitless adapter provides a sanitary hookup between the well and the household water distribution system.   It eventually connects into a basement or indoor structure where it meets with a water softener.

How do bladder pressure tanks work?

As water pressure changes, the volume of air in a bladder pressure tank contracts and expands.  

What functions do bladder pressure tanks serve?

• Maintain a desired range of water pressure in the distribution system.

• Minimize pump cycling, preventing frequent starts and stops protecting facilities from damage.

• Protect against water hammer noise from a sudden surge of water entering into the pipes.


Rock Well and Pump Crystalinuifere Bedrock Aq
Rock Well and Pump Eastern Dolomite Aquifer
Rock Well and Pump Sand and Gravel Aquifer
Rock Well and Pump Sandsuifertone and dolomite aq


Rock-Wells' guide to your wells' anatomy

From an aquifer, which is an underground geological formation of rock, gravel or sand that contain water.  Some imagine there are vast underground lakes below their feet.  Not so.  It is more accurate to visualize underground rivers or massive pockets of rocks surrounded by water.  There are four main aquafers in Wisconsin, each varying in thickness layer on top of the other based on stone.  The aquifers are replenished by rainwater. Some of the aquifers discharge into Lake Michigan in the form of rivers, such as the Pike which empty into Lake Michigan, which lowers ground water tables.  However depletion of an aquifer is overwhelmingly from human usage.  In Racine and Kenosha Counties approximately 60 million gallon of water per day are used, depleting the entire water source.  When Rock Well and Pump Service bores a well it must go deep enough into one of these rock formations where water flows through so the pump can capture some of it to deliver to your home.  The diagrams on the left show how each aquifer is layered on top of another, from shallowest Sand and Gravel Aquafer to the oldest and deepest Crystaline Bedrock.  Your well water comes from one of these aquifers.

SAND AND GRAVEL: Over the past 2.5 million years melting glaciers delivered crushed rocks, clay and sand into layers up to 300 feet thick throughout the region.  These aquifers are common in towns throughout the state, and can be so shallow they'll be at surface level.  Because it is not deep, it is vulnerable to downward flowing contamination especially if there's no clay to protect the sand and gravel filled water reserves.

EASTERN DOLOMITE:  Also known as the Niagaran or Silurian aquifer, this water source extends from the Wisconsin-Illinois state line north to Door County.  It is the thickest along Lake Michigan, thins out as it extends west and consists of glacial deposits that are hundreds of feet thick.  This 416  to 440 millions years old aquifer uses a think layer of shale (known as an aquitard) to protect the water soaked sandstone from contamination from other water sources.  Dolomoite aquifers make water available from cracks, pores and caves.

SANDTONE AND DOLOMITE:  These aquifers and rocks range from 580 to 420 million years of age. The deep sandstone and dolomite aquifer is the primary source of groundwater for much of the Wisconsin and Illinois. This sandstone aquifer yields water from the pores between the sand grains; the dolomite offers water from cracks and fractures. When driving to areas like Baraboo you'll see roads carved through this type of rock.

CRYSTALINE BEDROCK: This is the basement aquifer, formed 1 to 2.8 billion years ago; it is present everywhere in Wisconsin and Illinois.  Rock fractures provide opportunities to tap into the water.  Hydraulic fracturing using water alone can create larger flows of water.  It's only tapped when other easier sources of water aren't available.



4720 S. Beaumont Avenue

Kansasville, WI 53139

(262) 878-2110





4720 S. Beaumont Avenue

Kansasville, WI 53139